Announcing the 100 Ethnographies Project

About 20 years ago, I attended some kind of workshop or gathering for postgraduate anthropology students at the Australian National University, where I was a PhD student in the School of Archaeology and Anthropology. I can’t even remember what this gathering was all about. But I do remember that one of the speakers was Professor Jim Fox, and I remember very distinctly what he had to say to our group of relatively new MA and PhD anthropology students. If you want to become an anthropologist, he told us, start by reading 100 ethnographies.

The ethnography, defined by Marcus & Cushman (1982: 27) as “an account resulting from having done fieldwork”, is one of sociocultural anthropology’s most important contributions to the social sciences and humanities. I have used the long-form ethnography—in other words, ethnographic monographs—as an essential part of my teaching here at STU since I arrived 12 years ago. It is my belief that the ethnography is an important representation of anthropological practice. We learn about other ways of life not by spending a week here and a week there in different places, but by a long-term immersion among particular groups of people. We do this because we are committed to the idea that unique aspects of the human experience can only be known in this way. So it seems to me that the ethnographic monograph is the best representation of how anthropologists come to know things about the world, although the broader question of “What makes something ethnographic?” is open to interpretation.

So Fox’s exhortation to read 100 ethnographies was, I think, an appeal not to immerse ourselves in other ways of life (which we all had either already done or were about to do), but rather to immerse ourselves in anthropology’s project to understand ways of life in the broadest sense, and to acquire professional competence, in part, by a virtual and literary  apprenticeship. To quote the late Clifford Geertz:

[I]f you want to understand what a science is, you should look in the first instance not at its theories or its findings, and certainly not at what its apologists say about it; you should look at what the practitioners of it do. In anthropology, or anyway social anthropology, what the practitioners do is ethnography. And it is in understanding what ethnography is, or more exactly what doing ethnography is, that a start can be made toward grasping what anthropological analysis amounts to as a form of knowledge (1973: 5-6).

I think that, over the years, I have probably achieved Fox’s goal of reading 100 ethnographies (although he did say to “start by” reading that many, not “finish”), although somewhat haphazardly. And I regularly find myself dipping into ethnographies that I know I should have read but haven’t. So I want to embark on this journey a second time as a more self-conscious exercise to explore the foundations of anthropological knowledge.

I’m not entirely sure how long this will take—probably years, given the other demands on my reading time. But I will create a new post here on STUAnthroBlog for each one as I complete it, to share my thoughts and reflections. I invite any readers of STUAnthroBlog, especially our students,  to contribute as well—if for no other reason than to keep me company. I will happily post your thoughts and observations.

First up: W. Lloyd Warner’s A Black Civilization.

Homo naledi represents incredible new find

The next cover of National Geographic will feature a very exciting development in the world of physical anthropology, with the story of the discovery of Homo naledi, a new species of ancient human found in South Africa.

Almost everything about this story is superlative. The research team, led by palaeoanthropologist Lee Berger of the University of Witwatersrand, found the remains of 15 different individuals with a total of more than 1500 fossils. The excavation team itself consisted of six women (including Canadian Marina Elliott), all qualified in palaeontology or archaeology, and all quite small of stature because of the requirement to squeeze through an 18 centimetre opening into the cave system. The evidence strongly suggests that these remains were intentionally placed in the cave, which, if the fossils turn out to be very old, could represent a very early instance of organized human burial.

The find includes plenty of mystery. The fossils have yet to be dated, and could be less than 100,000 years old (in which case it is interesting that a distinctive species of Homo survived so close to the present day) or more than 2 million years old (in which case this species could be very close to the very origins of the genus Homo). Some of the physical features of the remains are similar to australopithecines or Homo habilus, and others very much like Neanderthals or modern humans. Much remains to be discovered as the research continues to unfold.

To read more about this story, have a look here:

Relaunch of STUAnthroBlog

After a lengthy hiatus, I am happy to report that STUAnthroBlog is set to relaunch for the 2015-16 academic year. The reasons for its temporary demise were multiple, not the least of which were my three-year stint as department chair and a subsequent one-year sabbatical. Be sure to check these pages for items of interest for, and about, anthropology here at St. Thomas University.

Peter Toner, editor, STUAnthroBlog

Information Meeting

On Friday, Feb. 23rd at 3:30, we will be hosting an information meeting in the Anthropology Laboratory (ECH 234) for all current and prospective students. This is an open meeting to discuss any and all student-related issues about our courses and programmes. Come one and all!

2012-13 Course Offerings

After a lengthy hiatus, I am back with some updates for our anthropology students here at St. Thomas University. We are currently preparing for registration for next year’s courses to begin, starting with our incoming 4th-year students. To that end, I have prepared a poster/brochure to provide a little basic information on all of the courses we will have on tap. Register early and register often!

Anthropology takes first hit in gubernatorial cleanup of liberal arts

Tampa, Florida, Friday, Oct. 15 — Florida Governor Rick Scott’s war against the liberal arts claimed its first victory today as anthropologists at the University of South Florida began packing up their offices containing artifacts, skeletal remains, and items of material culture collected from cultures around the world.

The move comes in response to Governor Scott’s decree earlier in the week that Florida tax revenues would no longer be used to support degree programs that only offered intellectual stimulation, the capacity to develop skills of critical thinking and writing, and engagement with all of the other peoples who currently inhabit, or have inhabited, our planet.

“We’re spending a lot of money on education, and when you look at the results, it’s not great,” the governor told a luncheon crowd of the Northwest Business Association in Tallahassee. “Do you want to use your tax money to educate more people who can’t get jobs in anthropology? I don’t.”

As a result, anthropology departments across the state will be shutting their doors. At USF, the Department of Anthropology will be sending their students across the quad to the Faculty of Business, where they will change their major to Hotel and Restaurant Management, a prospect that has many students excited.

“Well, I was planning to do my anthropology honours thesis on the impact of wetlands management on rural communities in the Sun Belt,” said 3rd-year former anthropology student Kristen Myers. “But that’s not possible any more, so I’m going to complete my major in bartending. I do it part-time anyway.”

Governor Scott is not singling out anthropology for long, however. Other liberal arts disciplines in the University of South Florida’s College of Arts and Sciences are also on the chopping block, with Classics to shut next week, followed by Drama, French, and History.

The diabolically alphabetical academic house-cleaning plan took at least one observer by surprise, a faculty member in the Department of African-American Studies who asked not to be identified.

“We knew this was coming down the line for a few weeks,” said the professor. “I was desperately trying to figure out what to do with my National Endowment for the Humanities grant that I was intending to use to study the continuing effects of racism on the criminal justice system. We were all getting ready to pack up. Then the announcement came that Anthropology was getting the axe, then Classics. I guess we slipped under the radar.”

Not all “A” disciplines are worried, though. The Department of Accounting is facing a funding windfall, and has plans to expand their PhD program. “Remember, we’re producing critically-thinking, theoretically-engaged accountants, who are trying to relate accountancy to the deeper significance of the human condition,” remarked accounting professor Deborah Jones.

For more on this story, see the following links:

Neuroanthropology: Understanding the Encultured Brain and Body

Meet My Daughter, The Anthropologist

USF Anthropology Students: This Is Anthropology

Huffington Post: What Anthropologists Can Do for Florida

Mother Jones on Governor Scott’s Plans for the Liberal Arts

Calligraphy-Inspired Stocks Trade at $416 Per Share




Dust-up in the Faroes

STU anthropology alumnus Josh Green, currently undertaking his MA fieldwork in the Faroe Islands, is attracting some attention from Paul Watson of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (the folks who confront Japanese industrial whalers in the Great Southern Ocean). An essay that Josh wrote on anti-whaling protests in the Faroes has generated an interesting Facebook discussion (same paper as above, so scroll down to the comments), with Watson himself weighing in. Sadly, Mr. Watson seems to be reluctant to actually read the essay in question. Oh well…

This seems to be an example of what I have come to think of as “the conflict of leftist causes,” whereby people on the political left (and I am one of them) can get themselves tied into knots when one cause to be supported or celebrated conflicts with another…like opposing whaling, on the one hand, and supporting traditional cultures on the other. Let’s not forget, though, that environmentalism, human rights, and many other important causes are, nevertheless, mainstream Western constructs, and the imposition of those constructs on other peoples may indeed be usefully thought of through the framework of cultural imperialism.

You pick your poison. A blanket ban on, say, the hunting of marine turtles would put in jeopardy traditional Yolngu subsistence practices (which include species management practices anyway). At any rate, what Mr. Watson may be overlooking are the differences between large-scale, industrial, “scientific” whaling by Japan, and relatively small-scale, traditional whaling in the Faroes. What is the appropriate balance between environmentalism, animals rights, and cultural survival?


First Nations artifacts on the auction block

This just in from the “better late than never” file.

I was listening earlier this week to As It Happens on CBC Radio One, and heard some talkback messages concerning a story from last week about the auctioning of First Nations objects owned by Calgary’s Glenbow Museum. I am very interested in anthropological issues surrounding cultural property and heritage, having worked on a postdoctoral project at the Australian National University revolving around the repatriation of archival recordings of music back to their communities of origin. So I listened with interest to a talkback caller and an email submission. Both were responding to the original interview (on Sept. 28th) with Bert Crowfoot of the Aboriginal Multi-Media Society, and a follow-up interview (on Sept. 30th) with Jerry Conaty of the Glenbow Museum.

So, to proceed in chronological order:

At issue is a lot of 220 individual items, originally owned by the Glenbow Museum and being auctioned by Hodgins Art Auctions Ltd. The items include beaded mocassins, beaded belts, leggings, breastplates, cuffs, shorts, dresses, vests, gauntlets, necklaces, armbands, baskets, pouches, bags, boxes, snowshoes, paddles, masks, carvings, bows, quivers, arrows, blankets, saddles, dance shields, ornaments, tomahawks, drums, dolls, and dance ornaments. These items came from a wide variety of First Nations, mostly plains and plateau peoples, including the Dakota, Interior Salish, Coast Salish, Ojibwa, Nez Perce, Sioux, Crow, Cheyenne, Pawnee, Haida, and Winnebago, among others.

During the Sept. 28th episode of As It Happens, host Carol Off spoke with Bert Crowfoot, founder and CEO of the Aboriginal Multi-Media Society (AMMSA). According to their mission statement:

The Aboriginal Multi-Media Society is an independent Aboriginal communications organization committed to facilitating the exchange of information reflecting Aboriginal culture to a growing and diverse audience.

AMMSA is dedicated to providing objective, mature and balanced coverage of news, information and entertainment relevant to Aboriginal issues and peoples while maintaining profound respect for the values, principles and traditions of Aboriginal people.

During the interview, Mr. Crowfoot indicated that he had seen a newspaper advertisement for the auction and posted it to Facebook, where it has generated (to date) 48 comments, 34 “likes” and 19 “shares”. Mr. Crowfoot articulately raised a range of concerns about the auction, and questioned why the artifacts were being sold and whether First Nations groups had been given the opportunity to reclaim them before the auction. He was particularly concerned about an Ojibwa ceremonial pipe bag, considered to be a sacred object, and an artifact decorated with eagle feathers, the sale of which is illegal.

On Sept. 30th, As It Happens did a follow-up interview with Jerry Conaty, curator of the Indigenous Studies Collection at the Glenbow Museum. Mr. Conaty cited space concerns and the need to raise funds for other collections as motivating factors behind the sale. He stated that the Glenbow followed a de-accessioning protocol, which included making contact with First Nations museums and cultural centres in Alberta in an attempt to make contact with the traditional owners of the material, althugh he acknowledged that they will seek to improve that process. Mr. Conaty indicated that the provenance of the items was not easy to determine, as deposited collections are often vague with cultural and geographical details, and that he welcomed the opportunity to work with representatives of First Nations communities to help to positively identify other artifacts in their collections. He also indicated that the feathered artifact would be examined to determine if the feathers were in fact eagle feathers (and, if so, the sale would be rescinded), and that the pipe bag did not look to have been used in ceremonial contexts and therefore similar to pipe bags made for commercial sale. (As an aside, the questionable use of pipe bags forms part of a larger set of practices by Westerners appropriating non-Western culture. You may, for example, learn to make your own.)

The auction went ahead on Sept. 27th. All 220 items were sold, for a grand total of $86,575.00.

The entire tale exemplifies some of the vexed issues involved in the ownership, loss, appropriation, management, (lack of) repatriation, and sale of cultural property. In many similar instances around the world, indigenous peoples are disempowered in relation to their own cultural property, not just systematically, but structurally. Cultural heritage materials, both tangible and intangible, were removed from their places of origin – sometimes without permission, sometimes with permission but without the kind of informed consent that social scientists seek today. In other cases, such materials were collected with informed consent, but ending up in a museological or archival structure which rendered them difficult to access – we know (vaguely) where they are, but we don’t know how to access them. Even in the best-case scenario, in which indigenous communities are consulted about curatorial or archival practices, cultural heritage materials must often live off-site, away from their communities of origin (often with the blessing of those communities, whose members recognize the kinds of management practices, like climate-controlled storage, that museums and archives can provide). Only rarely are indigenous communities in the position to establish their own “keeping places” that enable the permanent repatriation of their heritage.

Mary Louise Pratt developed the notion of “contact zones” to help to describe “social spaces where disparate cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each other, often in highly asymmetrical relations of domination and subordination—like colonialism, slavery, or their aftermaths as they are lived out across the globe today (Pratt 1992:4). In Pratt’s usage,

“contact zone” is an attempt to invoke the spatial and temporal copresence of subjects previously separated by geographic and historical disjunctures, and whose trajectories now intersect. By using the term ‘contact,’ I aim to foreground the interactive, improvisational dimensions of colonial encounters so easily ignored or suppressed by diffusionist accounts of conquest and domination. A “contact” perspective emphasizes how subjects are constituted in and by their relations to each other. It treats the relations among colonizers and colonized… not in terms of separateness or apartheid, but in terms of copresence, interaction, interlocking understandings and practices, often within radically asymmetrical relations of power (ibid.:7).

A key concept related to the notion of the contact zone is “transculturation”, describing “how subordinated or marginal groups select and invent from materials transmitted to them by a dominant or metropolitan culture” (ibid.:6). Pratt notes that “[w]hile subjugated peoples cannot readily control what emanates from the dominant culture, they do determine to varying extents what they absorb into their own, and what they use it for” (ibid.). This seems like an apt description of the indigenous engagement with museum and archival collections today. For the most part, these collections were collected and created by non-indigenous scholars, missionaries, or officials, and so indigenous peoples are not in control of what exists in museums and archives. Through the unique position of the emergent category of “keeping places” or “indigenous knowledge centres,” however, they do develop control over how these materials are re-absorbed and used within their communities.

James Clifford has extended the idea of “contact zones” to museums to point to a movement away from the organizing structure of the collection toward “an ongoing historical, political, and moral relationship” (1997:192), in which museums are being called upon “to be accountable in a way that [goes] beyond mere preservation”(ibid.:193). A new dynamic is clearly at play, and the transcultural tensions inherent in “contact zones” can help us to understand that dynamic. Clifford notes that collections and the contact histories that they represent are caught in a dichotomous relationship between community “experience” and curatorial “authority,” and are subject to contingent and political processes of power, negotiation, and representation (ibid.:208). This contact work is made even more complex by the emergence of “tribal museums” that overlap with and diverge from conventional museum practices and necessitate “active collaboration and a sharing of authority” (ibid.:210).

In the case of the Glenbow Museum’s auctioning of First Nations cultural heritage materials, the perspective of museums as “contact zones” seems to have been overlooked. Cultural heritage materials are often considered to be inalienable property – their removal from a community (or even if they are given as a gift) does not sever the relation between the object and its owners. So, even if the artifacts are the property of the Crown (with the Glenbow as the Crown’s agents) in our Western legal sense, they are nevertheless the property of their indigenous owners in an ethical, moral, and cultural sense. If the idea of museums as “contact zones” is to be taken seriously (as I think it must), museological and curatorial management practices (like “de-accessioning collections” to “make space” for “core collections”) must enter into a dialogue with indigenous indigenous knowledge about the “management” of “cultural heritage”.

Now, this is not to paint the Glenbow Museum as the bad guys. Having worked extensively with archivists over the past 15 years of my own research career, I believe them to be conscientious, knowledgeable professionals, often with the best interests of indigenous peoples in mind. As Mr. Conaty’s interview on the CBC made clear, some efforts were made to make contact with relevant First Nations communities prior to the de-accessioning, even if those efforts are now recognized to have been ineffective. I believe that the problem is not one of intent, but rather of the incommensurability of knowledge-management systems. The epistemological presuppositions and day-to-day practices of museums are based on “collections” as entities to be “managed,” on notions of “provenance,” on the necessity of “documentation” and “preservation,” and a host of other ideas. Indigenous ideas concerning their “heritage” (itself an unavoidably Western term) may involve notions of inalienability, ritual use, sacredness, cosmology, and attachment to particular persons or groups. I believe that there is some evidence that these two sets of ideas and practices are, to some extent at least, incommensurable with one another.

What is required, then, is the development of a new style of management between museums and indigenous communities based not only on dialogue, but on co-curation and co-management. Museums like the Glenbow (but not only the Glenbow) must be willing not only to invite indigenous people to help them with “documenting” and “managing” collections, but actually to reconsider and extend the conceptions of what “documentation” and “management” are all about in the first place.

For those interested in the interviews, the CBC archives its “As It Happens” episodes for two years at this stage. So here are the links, which may break at some stage:



Clifford, James. 1997. Museums as Contact Zones. In Routes: Travel and Translation in the Late Twentieth Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Pratt, Mary Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. London: Routledge.


50 years ago in anthropology

Browsing through a 50-year-old online issue of the American Anthropological Association’s Fellow Newsletter, volume 2 number 7, September 1961. Some highlights:

  • Reported on plans for the upcoming 60th annual conference, to be held at the Benjamin Franklin Hotel in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 16-19 1961. The AAA was expecting 265 papers for that conference, and not all of these would be able to be read in full because the program was too full. An opening plenary session on “Sex and Culture” was planned, including a paper by none other than William Masters and Virginia E Johnson entitled “The Cycle of Sexual Response of the Human Male and Female.” Also notable was the the Society for Ethnomusicology held their meetings jointly with the AAA that year.
  • Announced the impending launch of Ethnology: An International Journal of Cultural and Social Anthropology, under the editorship of George P. Murdock (of HRAF fame). This was to be a quarterly journal with an annual subscription price of $5.
  • Graduate student Roger Keesing received a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship. (Keesing conducted fieldwork among the Kwaio of the Solomon Islands, went on to author the much-used text Cultural Anthropology: A Contemporary Perspective, and was Professor of Anthropology at the Australian National University for over fifteen years before moving to McGill University in 1990. He died of a heart attack at the dinner & dance of the 1993 Canadian Anthropology Society conference.)
  • And this job ad: “University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B., Canada. Social or cultural anthropologist. Instructor or assistant professor rank. Ph.D. preferred. Salary $5,500 and up. Summer teaching available and possibilities of ethnological and archaeological field work. Address applications to Dr. A.G. Bailey, Dean of Arts, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B., Canada. I’d like to know who got that job, as it pre-dated the official formation of an anthropology/sociology department at UNB.

Interesting to look back at a frozen moment in the history of our discipline to get a sense of what has changed, and what has remained the same (or similar). This year’s AAA conference is being held in Montreal on almost the same dates as in 1961, November 16-20. They expect to attract over 5000 registrants, with over 300 paper sessions (most with 3-6 papers per session). My former PhD supervisor at the Australian National University, Ian Keen, is giving a paper in a session on kinship that also includes a paper investigating the “Implications of Keesing for European Kinship”. So the discipline has grown substantially, but there are still lots of interesting connections to be made.


Forensic scientists identify Ned Kelly’s remains

A recent news item from Australia draws attention to the field of forensics, a speciality of our own Prof. Moira McLaughlin, in relation to Australia’s greatest folk hero (or villain), Ned Kelly, whose remains were recently identified.

Our students here at STU may not be familiar with Ned Kelly. He was the best-known “bushranger” (a kind of outlaw)  in Australian history. The son of an Irish convict transported to Australia, Kelly was born in 1855 in the Australian state of Victoria . His criminal career began at age 14, and he was involved in assaults, theft, and cattle rustling. He eventually became the leader of a gang on the run from the Victorian police for the murder of several police constables, in addition to a string of daring bank robberies. While on the run, he justified his actions in a lengthy manifesto now known as “The Jerilderie Letter,” thought by some to be an early call for an Australian republic. Ned Kelly was finally apprehended after an infamous shootout at Glenrowan (which included the outlaws wearing homemade armour for protection), during which the other members of the Kelly Gand were killed. He was tried, sentenced, and hanged in the Melbourne Gaol in November 1880. He now has a kind of Robin Hood status among some Australians, and is seen as representative of a defiant anti-authoritarian and republican aspect of the Australian character.

The forensic science angle of all of this concerns Ned Kelly’s skull. Kelly was buried in a mass grave at the Melbourne Gaol. In 1929 the area around the gaol was dug up for urban development, and a skull reported to be Kelly’s was stolen as a keepsake. Decades of speculation about the whereabouts and authenticity of the skull ensued. In 2008 more human remains were uncovered and sent to the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine for analysis, and many were positively identified as the remains of Ned Kelly through a variety of forensic techniques, especially DNA analysis. The skull reported to be Kelly’s, however, has been proven not to be his, and so his real skull is still on the run.